Rodna Mountains appear as a horst crystalline layers delimitated by deep faults: Dragoș Vodă (to north) and Rodna (to south). There are three crystalline layers: Bretila, Repedea and Rebra. To South, some new volcanic rocks are to be found into the high hills, placed along the Someșul Mare River. Sedimentary rocks (Cretaceous and Paleocene) surrounding the massif have been affected by tectonic movements and stamped the landscape with some particular features. The mountain chain keeps the best traces of Quaternary glaciers. Glacial landscape is well developed on the northern slope where some glacial circuses can be found (Pietrosu, Buhăiescu, Negoiescu and so on). On the southern slope, the glacial landscape is less impressive: some suspended glacial circusses and snow niches. On south, the limestone bedrock has made up a karst landscape, with some remarkable caves: Izvorul Tăuțoarelor (16 km), Jgeabul lui Zalion, Baia lui Schneider, Cobășel, Grota Zânelor, Izbucul Albastru al Izei etc.